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스타벅스, 어떻게 중국에서 성공했을까?

중국은 15억 명의 인구 뿐만 아니라 서구화되는 생활환경으로 커피의 소비량이 늘면서 세계 각국의 수많은 식음료 전문기업들이 속속 중국시장에 진출했습니다. 하지만 서구와는 전혀 다른 경제/문화적 환경으로 많은 기업이 고배를 마시고 사업을 철수하기도 했죠.

해외 기업 중 KFC, 피자헛, 타코벨 등의 유명 식음료 브랜드를 보유한 美 ‘Yum Brands’가 많은 초기투자비용과 불확실한 중국 정치환경에 부담을 느낀 주주들에게 압박을 받고 중국 사업을 철수한 바 있으며, 한국 프랜차이즈 커피전문점도 비슷한 사례를 쉽게 찾아볼 수 있습니다. 2005년 중국시장에 진출했던 이디야는 2008년 전체 매장을 철수했으며, 카페베네도 2014년 중국 1호 가맹점을 개점하고 1년만인 2015년 600여 개의 가맹점을 모집했지만,  2016년 중국 시장에서 철수했습니다. 이외에도 다른 중국진출 식음료 기업중에서는 사드배치 문제로 인한 한-중 갈등으로 인해 고통을 겪는 경우가 많습니다.

(관련 기사 : [아시아 커피로드] 발넓히는 韓 커피, 中보단 동남아로)

하지만 모든 중국진출 기업들이 실패한 건 아닙니다.

스타벅스는 중국에서 매년 500여 개의 매장을 신규 오픈할 정도로 급격하게 성장하고 있습니다. 이미 상해 지역에만 600여 개의 매장이 있다고 하는데, 커피의 본고장 뉴욕 스타벅스 매장 숫자의 두 배에 달하는 수치입니다. 하워드 슐츠 스타벅스 CEO는 “중국 커피 시장의 한계치는 모르겠지만, 적어도 미국 커피 시장보다는 클 것”이라며 강한 자신감을 나타냈습니다. 이러한 전망에 맞춰, 최근 스타벅스는 중국 현지 운영사 지분을 100% 인수하면서 중국 시장에 더욱 적극적으로 뛰어들 예정입니다.

사실 스타벅스도 다른 외국기업들과 비슷한 어려움을 겪었습니다. 우리나라에서도 논쟁이 됐던 미국과 중국 현지 커피가격 차이가 3배라는 소식에 불매운동에 직면하기도 했죠. 이러한 어려움을 극복한 것은 끊임없는 투자와 인적교류였습니다. 최근 스타벅스는 중국 남서부 윈난성(미얀마 인접지역)에 아라비카 커피재배 농장을 설립하고, 이곳에서 생산되는 윈난커피를 세계적인 브랜드로 만들기위해 지방정부와 협력하고 있다고 밝혔습니다. 이는 스타벅스가 에티오피아,수마트라 등에 진출할 때 사용한 전략이기도 합니다.

같은 중국시장에서 각기 다른 결과를 거두고 있는 프랜차이즈 기업들. 단순히 시장규모/업계동향 만을 고려한 진출전략이 아닌, 현지 관공서/주민과의 소통까지 고려하는 폭넓은 고려가 중요할 것 같습니다.

(관련 기사 : While Other U.S. Companies Flee China, Starbucks Marches In)

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